Learn to Fly Airplanes

Private Pilot License (PPL) - Aeroplane

(1) Age

Minimum of seventeen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

  1. (a) Hold a Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate valid for Private Pilot License – Aeroplanes

(3) Knowledge

  1. (a) Minimum of 40 hours private pilot aeroplane ground school instruction
  2. (b) Minimum of 60% in each of the four mandatory subject areas as well as in the overall written examination Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane (PPAER)

(4) Experience

  1. (a) Complete a minimum of 45 hours private pilot flight training in aeroplanes under the direction and supervision of a Flight Instructor.
  2. (b) The flight training shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) 17 hours dual instruction flight time, including a minimum of 3 hours cross-country flight time and 5 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 3 hours may be instrument ground time; and
    2. (ii) 12 hours solo flight time, including 5 hours cross-country flight time with a flight of a minimum of 150 nautical miles which shall include 2 full stop landings at points other than the point of departure.

(5) Skill

Successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane in accordance with Schedule 3 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 – Conduct of Flight Tests.

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit – Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for helicopters may, when applying for the issue of Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane have the 40 hour ground instruction requirement reduced to 20 hours.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit – Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for helicopters shall in lieu of completing the written examination PPAER obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Private Pilot Aeroplane Rating – Alternate Category (PARAC).
  2. (b) Experience
  3. (i) The total flight time must include a minimum of 30 hours in aeroplanes.
    1. (ii) Where an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category flight time credits shall be claimed as follows:
  1. (A) Helicopter and Gyroplane
    1. (I) a maximum of 15 hours towards the total flight time; and
    2. (II) a maximum of 4 hours solo flight time, 2 hours of which shall be credited to solo cross-country flight time.
  2. (B) Glider A maximum of 5 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.
  3. (C) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplane A maximum of 10 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.
  4. (D) Instrument Flight Time An applicant who holds a private or higher type licence in another category shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in the other category towards meeting the instrument experience requirements provided that the instrument flight time acquired in the other category is not credited towards the 17 hours of dual instruction flight time or the 12 hours solo flight time.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot aeroplane wings standard or who have successfully completed the Basic Flying Training course of approximately 120 hours shall be considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement, the course requirement and the skill requirement provided that:
  1. (i) the applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time in aeroplanes has been acquired in the 12 months preceding the date of application, and
  2. (ii) the applicant obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR).
  • (b) A person who has undergone aeroplane pilot flight training in the Canadian Forces may be credited military dual and solo aeroplane flight time and aeroplane ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane.

(8) Licence Issued On the Basis of Foreign Licence

  1. (a) An applicant who is the holder of a Private or higher pilot licence – Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be considered:
  1. (i) to have met the ground school instruction requirement; and
  2. (ii) to have met the written examination requirement and the flight test requirement, provided that the foreign licence was not issued on the basis of a licence from another State, and that the applicant:
  1. (A) has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4);
  2. (B) has obtained a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Aviation Regulations (PSTAR); and
  3. (C) has completed, as pilot in command or co-pilot in aeroplanes, a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.
  • (b) The licence shall be annotated by the Minister to indicate that it was issued on the basis of the foreign licence.
  • (c) The Minister shall remove the annotation from the licence, provided that the applicant has successfully completed:
    1. (i) the written examination requirements (PPAER); and
    2. (ii) the skill requirement.

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence – Aeroplane issued by a contracting state and who does not wish to obtain a licence issued on the basis of the foreign licence, may be considered by the Minister to have met the ground school instruction requirement.
  2. (b) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence – Aeroplane issued by a contracting state other than Canada and who meets the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) is considered to have met the experience requirements.
  3. (c) An applicant who does not hold a Private or higher pilot licence – Aeroplane issued by a contracting state may be credited foreign dual and solo aeroplane flight training time and aeroplane ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane, if the applicant provides certification from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating – Aeroplane that all ground and flight training exercises have been satisfactorily reviewed.

Commercial Pilot License (CPL) - Aeroplane

(1) Age

Minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.

(3) Knowledge

Ground School Instruction
  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 80 hours commercial pilot aeroplane ground school instruction
  2. (b) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable course requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
Written Examination
  1. (c) All applicants shall have obtained a minimum of 60% in each of the four mandatory subjects areas as well as in the overall written examination Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane (CPAER)
  2. (d) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable course requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(4) Experience

  1. Completed, subject to paragraph (b), a minimum of 200 hours flight time in aeroplanes, of which a minimum of 100 hours shall be pilot-in-command time including 20 hours cross-country pilot-in-command flight time, and
    1. (ii) following the issuance of a private pilot licence — Aeroplane by Canada or another contracting state, have completed 65 hours of commercial pilot flight training in aeroplanes consisting of a minimum of:
      1. (A) 35 hours dual instruction flight time, under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating — Aeroplane, including:
        1. (I) 5 hours night, including a minimum of 2 hours of cross-country flight time;
        2. (II) 5 hours cross-country, which may include the cross-country experience stated in subclause (I); and
        3. (III) 20 hours of instrument flight time in addition to the experience stated in subclauses (I) and (II). A maximum 10 hours of the 20 hours may be conducted on an approved aeroplane simulator or synthetic flight training device.
      2. (B) 30 hours solo flight time including:
        1. (I) 25 hours solo flight time emphasizing the improvement of general flying skills of the applicant which shall include a cross-country flight to a point of a minimum of 300 nautical mile radius from the point of departure and shall include a minimum of 3 landings at points other than that of departure; and
        2. (II) 5 hours solo flight time by night during which a minimum of 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings were completed.
  2. (b) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable experience requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(5) Skill

Successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 4 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.

(6) Restricted Licence – Daylight Flying

  1. (a) If an applicant has not completed the night flight time requirements, the licence shall be restricted to daylight flying, however the total dual instruction flight time and solo flight time requirements for the issuance of the licence shall be met.
  2. (b) If an applicant completes the night flight time requirements, the restriction shall be removed.
  3. (c) If an applicant holds a pilot licence – helicopter valid for night flying, the night flight time experience may be reduced to 5 hours pilot flight time which shall include:
    1. (i) 2 hours dual instruction night flight time,
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instruction instrument flight time.

(7) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter or higher, shall, when applying for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane, be credited with 20 hours of the 80 hour ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter or higher, shall, in lieu of completing the written examination Commercial Pilot – Aeroplane (CPAER), obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) – Alternate Category (CARAC).
  2. (b) Experience
  3. If an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category, flight time credits may be claimed as follows:
    1. (i) Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter If an applicant holds a Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter, the 200 hours total flight time in aeroplanes required by subparagraph (4)(a)(i) is considered to have been met if the applicant has completed a minimum of 100 hours pilot flight time in aeroplanes, including the 65 hours experience required by subparagraph (4)(a)(ii). In this case, it is not necessary to obtain a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane prior to obtaining the Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane.
    2. (ii) Private Pilot Licence – Helicopter If an applicant holds a Private Pilot Licence — Helicopter, the following must be met:
      1. (A) a maximum of 50 hours flight time in helicopters shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement, and
      2. (B) a maximum of 25 hours of pilot-in-command flight time in helicopters shall be credited towards the 100 hours pilot-in-command flight time requirement.
    3. (iii) Pilot Licence – Glider If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence – Glider, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in gliders shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement but this time shall not be credited towards the 100 hour pilot-in-command flight time.
    4. (iv) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplane If an applicant holds a Pilot Permit — Ultra-light Aeroplane, a Recreational Pilot Permit — Aeroplane or a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane, a maximum of 25 hours pilot-in-command flight time in three axis ultra-light aeroplanes shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement but this time shall not be credited towards the 100 hour pilot-in-command flight time.
    5. (v) Instrument Flight Time If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence — Helicopter category, they shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in helicopters towards meeting the instrument flight time experience requirements provided that the applicant has acquired a minimum of 10 hours of dual instruction instrument flight time in aeroplanes.
    6. (vi) Night Flight Time
      1. (A) If an applicant holds a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane with a night rating, the total dual instruction and solo night flight time requirements are considered to have been met provided that the 35 hours dual instruction flight time and 30 hours solo flight time requirements are met.
      2. (B) If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence — Helicopter valid for night privileges, the night flight time acquired in helicopters shall be credited towards the total dual instruction flight time and solo night flight time requirements provided that the applicant has acquired at night, in aeroplanes, a minimum of 1 hour dual instruction flight time and 1 hour solo flight time and the 35 hours dual instruction flight time and 30 hours solo flight time requirements are met.
  4. (c) Experience – Same Category – Instrument Rating
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version) An applicant who holds or has held an instrument rating in the aeroplane category within the preceding 24 months is considered to have met the 20 hours dual instrument flight requirement of subclause 421.30(4)(a)(ii)(A)(III).

(8) Credits for Canadian Forces Applicants

Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot aeroplane wings standard are considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement, the skill requirement and the requirement to hold a Private Pilot Licence, if the applicant:

  1. (a) has met the flight time requirements specified in paragraph (4)(a) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time was acquired in aeroplanes in the 12 months preceding the date of application; and
  2. (b) obtains a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Air Law, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures (ARPCO).

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

If an applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in paragraph (4)(a), the applicant who holds a commercial or higher type pilot licence in the aeroplane category, issued by a contracting state is considered to have met the ground school requirement.

Airline Transport License (ATPL) - Aeroplane

(1) Age

Minimum of twenty-one years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

  1. (a) Hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence – Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.

(3) Knowledge

Minimum of 70% in each of three written examinations on the following aviation subjects:

  1. (a) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Meteorology, Radio Aids to Navigation and Flight Planning (SAMRA) including:
    1. (i) general system of weather collection and dissemination,
    2. (ii) weather map, weather forecast, weather abbreviations, symbols and nomenclature,
    3. (iii) pressure systems and their association with fronts, cloud forms and icing conditions,
    4. (iv) the movement of upper winds and their effect on aircraft operations,
    5. (v) weather service circulars and instructions for air route meteorological service which are pertinent to aircraft operations, and
    6. (vi) radio communication procedures relating to aircraft operation; and
  2. (b) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Air Law, Aeroplane Operation and Navigation General (SARON) including:
    1. (i) basic principles of air navigation such as formulae, instruments and other navigational aids which are commonly used in the navigation of aircraft,
    2. (ii) basic principles of loading and weight distribution and their effect on flight characteristics,
    3. (iii) Canadian Aviation Regulations, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures, Information Circulars and NOTAM, and
    4. (iv) human factors, including pilot decision-making; and
  3. (c) Instrument Rating (INRAT).

(4) Experience

Meet the training requirements for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane that is not restricted to daylight flying and completed a minimum of 1500 hours total flight time of which a minimum of 900 hours shall have been completed in aeroplanes. The total flight time shall include a minimum of:

  1. (a) 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time in aeroplanes which shall include where applicable, a maximum of 100 hours pilot-in-command under supervision flight time completed in accordance with Section 421.11. The pilot-in-command and/or pilot-in-command under supervision flight time shall include a minimum of 100 hours cross-country flight time of which a minimum of 25 hours shall have been by night;
  2. (b) 100 hours night flight time as pilot-in-command or as co-pilot of which a minimum of 30 hours shall have been acquired in aeroplanes;
  3. (c) 100 additional hours cross-country flight time as pilot-in-command or 200 hours as co-pilot or any combination thereof, with flight time calculated in accordance with section 421.10. Flight time as pilot-in-command may be part of the 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time specified in paragraph (a); and
  4. (d) 75 hours instrument flight time of which a maximum of 25 hours may have been acquired in approved instrument ground trainers and a maximum of 35 hours may have been acquired in helicopters. Instrument ground time shall not be applied toward the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall demonstrate in a multi-engined aeroplane with no central thrust configuration and fitted with instruments and equipment suitable for IFR flight in controlled airspace, familiarity with and the ability:
  1. (i) to perform both normal and emergency flight procedures and manoeuvres appropriate to the aeroplane in which the flight test is conducted; and
  2. (ii) to execute all manoeuvres and procedures set forth in Division XIV for issue of a Group 1 instrument rating.
  • (b) For issue of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence – Aeroplane, the Minister shall only endorse a Group 1 Instrument Rating on the licence.

(6) Credits – Experience

  1. (a) Glider Where an applicant holds a Pilot Licence – Glider, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in gliders shall be credited towards the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.
  2. (b) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplanes Where an applicant holds a Pilot Permit – Ultra-light Aeroplane, a Recreational Pilot Permit – Aeroplane, a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane or a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in three axis ultra-light aeroplanes shall be credited towards the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who hold a Canadian Forces Instrument Rating (unrestricted) in a multi-engined aeroplane (Group 1) shall be deemed to have met the skill requirement.